NSM Staff-Student Research

Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/10735.1/2079


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 249
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    Smart MRI Agents for Detecting Extracellular Events In Vivo: Progress and Challenges
    (MDPI, 2019-02-09) Parrott, Daniel; Fernando, W. Shirangi; Martins, Andre F.; Fernando, W. Shirangi; Martins, Andre F.
    Many elegant inorganic designs have been developed to aid medical imaging. We know better now how to improve imaging due to the enormous efforts made by scientists in probe design and other fundamental sciences, including inorganic chemistry, physiochemistry, analytical chemistry, and biomedical engineering. However, despite several years being invested in the development of diagnostic probes, only a few examples have shown applicability in MRI in vivo. In this short review, we aim to show the reader the latest advances in the application of inorganic agents in preclinical MRI.
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    Two ABC Transporters and a Periplasmic Metallochaperone Participate in Zinc Acquisition in Paracoccus Denitrificans
    (Amer Chemical Soc, 2018-10-24) Neupane, Durga P.; Kumar, Santosh; Yukl, Erik T.; Kumar, Santosh
    Bacteria must acquire the essential element zinc from extremely limited environments, and this function is performed largely by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These systems rely on a periplasmic or extracellular solute binding protein (SBP) to bind zinc specifically with a high affinity and deliver it to the membrane permease for import into the cytoplasm. However, zinc acquisition systems in bacteria may be more complex, involving multiple transporters and other periplasmic or extracellular zinc binding proteins. Here we describe the zinc acquisition functions of two zinc SBPs (ZnuA and AztC) and a novel periplasmic metallochaperone (AztD) in Paracoccus denitrificans. ZnuA was characterized in vitro and demonstrated to bind as many as 5 zinc ions with a high affinity. It does not interact with AztD, in contrast to what has been demonstrated for AztC, which is able to acquire a single zinc ion through associative transfer from AztD. Deletions of the corresponding genes singly and in combination show that either AztC or ZnuA is sufficient and essential for robust growth in zinc-limited media. Although AztD cannot support transport of zinc into the cytoplasm, it likely functions to store zinc in the periplasm for transfer through the AztABCD system.
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    High Performance Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Using Ultra-Low Pt Loading on Titania Nanowire Array Integrated Cordierite Honeycombs
    (Elsevier Science B.V., 2017-11-15) Hoang, Son; Lu, Xingxu; Tang, Wenxiang; Wang, Sibo; Du, Shoucheng; Nam, Chang-Yong; Ding, Yong; Vinluan, Rodrigo D., III; Zheng, Jie; Gao, Pu-Xian; Vinluan III, Rodrigo D.
    High performance of an ultra-low Pt loading diesel oxidation catalyst can be achieved by using a combination of novel nano-array structured support, precise control of ultrafine active Pt particles, and an addition of H₂ as a promoter into the exhausts. Highly stable mesoporous rutile TiO₂ nano-array was uniformly grown on threedimensional (3-D) cordierite honeycomb monoliths using a solvothermal synthesis. Atomic layer deposition was employed for precise dispersion of ultrafine Pt particles (0.95 ± 0.24 nm) on TiO₂ nano-array with a Pt loading of 1.1 g/ft³. Despite low Pt loading, the Pt/TiO₂ nano-array catalyst shows impressive low-temperature oxidation reactivity, with the conversion of CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) reaching 50% at 224 and 285°C, respectively, in the clean diesel combustion (CDC) simulated exhaust conditions. The excellent activity is attributed to the unique nano-array structure that promotes gas-solid interaction and ultra-small Pt particle dispersion that increase surface Pt atoms. We also demonstrate that addition of more H₂ into the exhaust can lower light-off temperature for CO and THC by up to ~60 °C and ~30 degrees °C, respectively.
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    Reporting of Sample Size Parameters in Randomized Controlled Trials Published in Prosthodontic Journals
    (Wiley, 2018-12-18) Dumbrigue, Herman B.; Dumbrigue, Ethan C.; Dumbrigue, Derek C.; Chingbingyong, Marianne I.; Dumbrigue, Derek C.
    Purpose: An important consideration in the proper planning of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is the determination of sample size. A study may fail to answer its research question if the sample size is inadequate, while a large enough sample size may be impractical to implement. The purpose of this study is to describe the reporting of sample size methodology and parameters used in RCTs published in prosthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search for publications categorized as RCTs was conducted for articles in The Journal of Prosthodontics and The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published from 2008 to 2017. The Abstract and Methodology sections of RCTs identified were reviewed, and the following data recorded: reporting of method used to calculate sample size and reporting of parameters used for sample size calculation - type I error (α), type II error (β) or power, minimal clinically relevant difference (MCRD), and variability. Results: The search strategy retrieved 96 articles; 42 met inclusion criteria for RCTs and were reviewed. Fifty percent (21) of RCTs reported how sample size was determined, but only 17% (7) of RCTs reported all 4 parameters. Type I error (α) was reported in 90% (38) of RCTs, 38% (16) reported power, while only 26% (11) and 12% (5) reported MCRD and variability, respectively. Conclusion Methodology and parameters used for sample size determination are inadequately reported in RCTs published in prosthodontic journals.
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    5-Methoxy-α-Methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), A Tryptamine Derivative, Induces Head-Twitch Responses in Mice through the Activation of Serotonin Receptor 2a in the Prefrontal Cortex
    (Elsevier Science Bv, 2018-07-24) Abiero, Arvie; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Sayson, Leandro Val; Custodio, Raly James; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Mikyung; Lee, Hyun Jun; Seo, Joung-Wook; Ryu, In Soo; Chang, Cho Min; Yang, Ji Seul; Lee, Yong Sup; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; de la Peña, June Bryan
    5-Methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT) is a tryptamine derivative that is used recreationally because of its reported hallucinogenic and mood elevating effects. Studies suggest that the psychopharmacological effects of tryptamines involve serotonin receptor 2a (5-HTR2a) activation in the brain. The head-twitch response (HTR) is widely used as a behavioral correlate for assessing 5-HTR2a agonist activity of a drug. Thus, we investigated whether 5-MeO-AMT induces HTR in mice and explored its mechanism of action. 5-MeO-AMT (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg) was administered once a day for 7 days, and the HTR was measured after 1 day (acute) and 7 days (repeated) of administration. Another cohort of mice was treated with 5-HTR2a antagonist ketanserin (KS) before 5-MeO-AMT administration. We measured 5-HTR2a and 5-HTR2c mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex of the mice treated acutely or repeatedly with 5-MeO-AMT. We performed western blotting to determine the effects of the drug on the expression of G protein (G_{q/11}), protein kinase C gamma (PKC-γ), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), in addition to PKC-γ and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, we evaluated potential rewarding and reinforcing effects of 5-MeO-AMT using locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference (CPP), and self-administration (SA) paradigms. Acute 5-MeO-AMT administration elicited the HTR, while repeated administration resulted in tolerance. KS blocked the 5-MeO-AMT-induced HTR. 5-MeO-AMT increased 5-HTR2a mRNA levels and induced PKC-γ phosphorylation in the prefrontal cortex. 5-MeO-AMT did not induce locomotor sensitization, CPP, or SA. This study shows that 5-MeO-AMT induces HTR through 5-HTR2a activation in the prefrontal cortex, and may have low potential for abuse.
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    An Optimized Space-Time Gaussian Beam Migration Method with Dynamic Parameter Control
    (Elsevier Science B.V., 2018-11-14) Lv, Qingda; Huang, Jianping; Yang, Jidong; Guan, Zhe; Yang, Jidong
    In the Gaussian beam (GB) method, initial beam parameters are principal factors influencing the accuracy and computational efficiency of seismic depth imaging. Various optimized beam parameter strategies for Gaussian beam migration (GBM) have been proposed to improve imaging quality as well as computational efficiency, while optimized space-time Gaussian beam schemes for seismic migration have still not been fully investigated. In this paper, an optimized space-time Gaussian beam approach with dynamic parameter control for seismic depth imaging is developed. We first provide an expression for dynamic beam parameter by taking in account the effect of velocity field variation on the beam forming. Based on dynamic beam parameters, the new space-time adaptive Gaussian beam generated by an arbitrary source wavelet is obtained, which can adaptively calculate the beam width to make the seismic beam energy better focused in the central ray neighborhood. Then, the forward wavefield is constructed in two-dimensional (2D) acoustic media by space-time adaptive Gaussian beam for the implementation of migration. Adhering to the framework of conventional space-time Gaussian beam method, we perform the up-going ray tracing from subsurface imaging points to the receiver surface to compute the asymptotic Green function for the construction of the backward wavefield. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the new presented approach has a superior accuracy for seismic depth imaging in both shallow and deep regions compared to the conventional space-time Gaussian beam migration scheme.
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    Adsorption of Polypropylene Oxide-Polyethylene Oxide Type Surfactants at Surfaces of Pharmaceutical Relevant Materials: Effect of Surface Energetics and Surfactant Structures
    (Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2018-01-05) Li, Jinjiang; Rudraraju, Sneha; Zheng, Songyan; Jaiswal, Archana; Rudraraju, Sneha
    Protein therapeutics are exposed to various surfaces during product development, where their adsorption possibly causes unfolding, denaturation, and aggregation. In this paper, we aim to characterize four types of typical surfaces used in the development of biologics: polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, borosilicate glass, and cellulose. Contact angles of these surfaces were measured using three probing liquids: water, formamide, and diidomethane, from which acid/base (AB) and Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interaction components were derived. To explore the interactions of surfactants of Pluronics/Poloxamers (PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers) with these surfaces, the adsorption of three Pluronics (F68, F127, and L44) at these surfaces was determined using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D). For hydrophobic surfaces without AB component (polycarbonate and polyethersulfone), these copolymers exhibited significant adsorption with a little dissipation at low concentrations. For hydrophilic surfaces with AB component (cellulose and borosilicate), the adsorption at low-surfactant concentration is low while dissipation is relatively high. Additionally, the chemical properties of Pluronics such as the ratio of PPO to PEO, along with the interaction of PPO with surfaces were observed to play a critical role in adsorption. Furthermore, the interfacial structure of the adsorbed layer was affected by both AB interaction and the presence of PEO block.
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    Trace Elements and Isotope Data of the Um Garayat Gold Deposit, Wadi Allaqi District, Egypt
    (Springer, 2018-04-09) Zoheir, Basem; Emam, Ashraf; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Boskabadi, Arman; Lehaye, Yann; Cooper, Matthew J.; Boskabadi, Arman
    Trace element composition of sulfides and O, C, Sr and S isotopic data are assessed to constrain the evolution and potential fluid and metal sources of the Um Garayat gold deposit. Ore microscopy and BSE investigations of quartz veins show blocky arsenopyrite and pyrite replaced in part by pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and gersdorffite. Free-milling gold occurs commonly in close association with the late sulfides, and along fractures in pyrite. On the other hand, recrystallized pyrite is disseminated in host metavolcaniclastic/metasedimentary rocks that commonly contain carbonaceous material. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides shows the recrystallized pyrite enriched in most trace elements, while blocky pyrite contains only some traces of arsenic. Detected concentrations of gold (up to 17ppm) were only reported in arsenopyrite disseminated in quartz veins. The δ³⁴S values of blocky pyrite and pyrrhotite in quartz veins define a narrow range (1.6 to 3.7 parts per thousand), suggesting a homogenous sulfur source which is consistent with the dominantly mafic host rocks. The recrystallized pyrite has a distinctive sulfur isotope composition (δ³⁴S -9.3 to -10.6 ‰), which is rather comparable to diagenetic sulfides. Hydrothermal carbonate in quartz veins and wallrock have nearly constant values of δ¹⁸O (10.5 to 11.9 ‰) and δ¹³C (-4.2 to -5.5 ‰). Based on constraints from mineral assemblages and chlorite thermometry, data of six samples indicate that carbonate precipitation occurred at ~ 280 °C from a homogenous hydrothermal fluid with δ¹⁸O_{H₂O} 4.4 +/- 0.7 ‰ and δ¹³C =3.7 +/- 0.8 ‰. Strontium isotope values of two samples (⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr = 0.7024 and 0.7025) are similar to the initial ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr ratios of island arc metabasalts (~ 710Ma) in the South Eastern Desert. The generally homogenous sulfur, C, O, Sr isotope data are suggestive of metamorphogenic fluids, likely produced from dominantly mafic volcanic rocks at the greenschist-amphibolite facies transition.
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    Superconductivity in Europium Bismuth Sulfofluorides
    (Physical Society of Japan, 2019) Zhai, Hui-Fei; Zhang, P.; Cao, G. -H; Zhai, Hui-Fei
    The layered bismuth sulfofluorides EuBiS₂F and Eu₃Bi₂S₄F₄ show unique properties among all the BiS₂-based superconductors. Both compounds exhibit a possible charge-density-wave (CDW) instability around 280 K and undergo superconducting transitions at 0.3 and 1.5 K, respectively, without extrinsic doping. The self-doping effect due to the mixed valence state of Eu ions, which allows charge transfer from Eu to BiS₂ layers, accounts for the metallic behavior and superconductivity. Here we present a brief review of the research progress in these Eu-containing bismuth sulfofluorides, including the structure and electronic properties, external pressure effects, chemical pressure effects and doping effects. The results can provide important information towards a deeper understanding of BiS₂-based superconductors. ©2019 The Physical Society of Japan
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    Polytype Control of MoS₂ Using Chemical Bath Deposition
    (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2019-05-01) Hedlund, Jenny K.; Walker, Amy V.; 0000-0003-2114-3644 (Walker, AV); Hedlund, Jenny K.; Walker, Amy V.
    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) has a wide range of applications from electronics to catalysis. While the properties of single-layer and multilayer MoS₂ films are well understood, controlling the deposited MoS₂ polytype remains a significant challenge. In this work, we employ chemical bath deposition, an aqueous deposition technique, to deposit large area MoS₂ thin films at room temperature. Using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the deposited MoS₂ polytype can be changed from semiconducting 2H MoS₂ on hydrophobic -CH₃ and -CO₂C₆F₅ terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to semimetallic 1T MoS₂ on hydrophilic -OH and -COOH terminated SAMs. The data suggest that the deposition of MoS₂ polytypes is controlled by the substrate surface energy. High surface energy substrates stabilize 1T MoS₂ films, while 2H MoS₂ is deposited on lower surface energy substrates. This effect appears to be general enabling the deposition of different MoS₂ polytypes on a wide range of substrates. ©2019 Author(s).
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    Geochemistry of Palaeogene Coals from the Fuqiang Mine, Hunchun Coalfield, Northeastern China: Composition, Provenance, and Relation to the Adjacent Polymetallic Deposits
    (Elsevier Science Bv, 2018-11-02) Guo, Wenmu; Dai, Shifeng; Nechaev, Victor P.; Nechaeva, Evgeniya, V.; Wei, Guojun; Finkelman, Robert B.; Spiro, Baruch F.; Finkelman, Robert B.
    This paper describes the geochemistry of the two Palaeogene coal seams (FQ-23 and FQ-26) from the Fuqiang mine, Hunchun Coalfield, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The samples investigated consist of coal, parting, and roof and floor strata. The two Fuqiang coals are lignite/subbituminous rank and have low sulfur contents (0.13% and 0.16% on average, respectively). In comparison with the average values for common global low-rank coals, the Fuqiang coals are richer in W, Cs, Sb, Pb, Li, V, Ga, and Zr. The terrigenous components in the Fuqiang coals were derived from the Mesozoic (mostly Lower Cretaceous) and Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are abundant in areas surrounding the Hunchun coal basin. The elevated concentrations of trace elements are attributed to two processes: (1) Contribution of clastic materials derived from mineralized Paleozoic rocks, which also host economical ore deposits of these elements; and (2) Mobilisation and redeposition of these elements by acidic waters, which circulated within the coal basin. The latter is evidenced by enrichment in medium rare earth elements, distinct positive Gd anomalies, and high concentrations of boron in the coals. The overall similarity of the geochemical signatures of the Fuqiang coals and the adjacent Au, Cu and W deposits hosted by the Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks underlying and bordering the Hunchun Basin, indicate that they are genetically linked.
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    Cyclophilin D Deficiency Attenuates Mitochondrial F1Fo ATP Synthase Dysfunction Via OSCP In Alzheimer's Disease
    (Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, 2018-09-26) Gauba, Esha; Chen, Hao; Guo, Lan; Du, Heng; Gauba, Esha; Chen, Hao; Guo, Lan; Du, Heng
    Mitochondrial dysfunction is pivotal in inducing synaptic injury and neuronal stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase deregulation is a hallmark mitochondrial defect leading to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) failure in this neurological disorder. Oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) is a crucial F1Fo ATP synthase subunit. Decreased OSCP levels and OSCP interaction with amyloid beta (A beta) constitute key aspects of F1Fo ATP synthase pathology in AD-related conditions. However, the detailed mechanisms promoting such AD-related OSCP changes have not been fully resolved. Here, we have found increased physical interaction of OSCP with Cyclophilin D (CypD) in AD cases as well as in an AD animal model (5xFAD mice). Genetic depletion of CypD mitigates OSCP loss via ubiquitin-dependent OSCP degradation in 5xFAD mice. Moreover, the ablation of CypD also attenuates OSCP/A beta interaction in AD mice. The relieved OSCP changes by CypD depletion in 5xFAD mice are along with preserved F1Fo ATP synthase function, restored mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as improved mouse cognition. The simplest interpretation of our results is that CypD is a critical mediator that promotes OSCP deficits in AD-related conditions. Therefore, to block the deleterious impact of CypD on OSCP has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy to correct mitochondrial dysfunction for AD therapy.
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    Relationship Between Religious Orientation, Anxiety, and Depression Among College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    (Iranian Scientific Society of Medical Entomology, 2019-01-16) Forouhari, Sedighe; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hasan; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Tabei, Seyed Ziaeddin; Nami, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Masoud; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hosseini Teshnizi, Seyyed Mehrdad; Ghani Dehkordi, Jalil; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Hosseini Teshnizi, Seyyed Mehrdad
    Background: Religious obligation helps people to develop mental health by creating internal commitment to special rules. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the relationship between religious orientation and anxiety among college students. Methods: Major scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO, ProQuest and PsycINFO were searched for original research articles published 1987-2016. A random effect model was used to combine Correlation coefficient. All analyses were performed using Stata MP. Results: After screening of 7235 documents, 13 articles including 5620 participants met inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. Correlation coefficient was -0.08 (95% CI= -0.19, -0.03) which indicated with increasing religious orientation, anxiety and depression reduced (P < 0.001). Characteristics such as sex, geographic region, and type of religions were potential sources of heterogeneity. Based on fill-and-trim method the adjusted pooled r was obtained, -0.06 (95% CI= -0.16, -0.04). Conclusion: There was a weakness relationship between religious orientation and mental anxiety and depression. Therefore, it needs to improve knowledge of student about advantages of religious orientation.
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    Bias: A 30-Year Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in Three Prosthodontic Journals
    (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019-05-13) Dumbrigue, H. B.; Dumbrigue, Derek C.; Dumbrigue, E. C.; Chingbingyong, M. I.; Dumbrigue, Derek C.
    Purpose: Bias can occur in various phases of an investigation, and its control is an important measure of the validity of results for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this study is to determine if bias control in prosthodontic RCTs published from 2008 to 2017 improved over those published from 1988 to 1997. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE was searched for RCTs in The International Journal of Prosthodontics, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, and The Journal of Prosthodontics published from 2008 to 2017. Citations retrieved were included if the trial involved human subjects, included at least 2 treatment groups, and group assignment was by random allocation. Pilot and follow-up studies were excluded. Included RCTs were evaluated on the basis of how control of potential sources of bias in trial methodology were reported. Three areas—control of bias at entry, control of bias in assessment of outcome, and control of bias after entry—were scored 1 or 0, based on whether method of randomization was explicitly reported, blinding was done, and all subjects were accounted for at the end of the study. Thus, the maximum quality score was 3 (good bias control) and the minimum 0 (poor bias control). Frequencies were calculated for each dimension of trial methodology, and overall scores were reported. Results were compared to those of RCTs published from 1988 to 1997 reported in a previous study. Results: Ninety-six RCTs published from 2008 to 2017 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Method of randomization was explicit in 68% of RCTs, 50% reported blinding, and 85% accounted for all subjects; 32% scored the maximum 3 points for good bias control. In comparison, 62 RCTs published from 1988 to 1997 had frequencies of 47%, 40%, and 76% in the 3 areas examined, respectively; only 16% had maximum scores for good bias control. Conclusion: Control of bias and overall quality scores have improved for RCTs published in the 3 studied prosthodontic journals. © 2019 by the American College of Prosthodontists
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    Methoxetamine: A Foe or Friend?
    (Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2018-10-24) Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Yong Sup; Cheong, Jae Hoon; de la Peña, June Bryan
    Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to other dissociative substances, such as ketamine and phencyclidine. There are reports on the misuse of MXE, which sometimes resulted in adverse consequences and death. Studies have also shown that MXE has abuse liability and stimulates dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain. These findings have contributed to the negative impression on MXE. However, recent preclinical studies have identified the antidepressant properties of MXE, which are attributed to its ability to affect the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems. MXE is also reported to have analgesic effects. These findings show some of the "redeeming qualities" of MXE and indicate its possible therapeutic uses. In this paper, we have reviewed the findings that provide insights into the adverse and potential therapeutic effects of MXE. We compiled studies on the toxicity, psychotomimetic effects, and abuse liability of MXE, as well as its promising antidepressant and analgesic properties. We also have discussed the mechanism of action that might mediate the somewhat paradoxical effects observed. Importantly, this review provides valuable information on MXE for future research and will enable a better understanding of its psychopharmacological properties and the mechanisms responsible for its unique effects.
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    Water-Rock Interactions: The Formation of an Unusual Mineral Assemblage Found in a Siberian Coal
    (EDP Sciences, 2019-07) Thompson, Leah N.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Arbuzov, S. I.; Thompson, Leah N.; Finkelman, Robert B.
    Volcanic ash is regularly found in coal and is particularly common in the Minusinsk coal basin in southern Siberia, Russia. Ash deposits in coal are usually observed in the form of thinly bedded, kaolinite-rich layers called tonsteins. The coal we studied by scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive detector contained many of the minerals typically found in tonsteins: kaolinite groundmass, volcanogenic phenocrysts such as K-feldspar, quartz, apatite, and zircon, along with secondary minerals such as galena, sphalerite, and REE minerals. However, in addition to these commonly observed minerals, the groundmass contains a rare calcium-bearing magnesian siderite in roughly equal proportion to the kaolinite. Ca-Mg siderite has only been reported in a few Australian coals and never at these relatively high proportions. The relative levels of K-feldspar, apatite, and quartz are consistent with a parent magma of felsic to intermediate composition. The Ca-rich-Mg siderite appears to have developed late in the diagenetic process, likely as a result of the dissolution of calcic feldspars, micas, and mafic minerals in the acidic peat waters releasing calcium, iron, and magnesium which reacted with carbon dioxide from the decomposing plant matter. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019.
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    Eight Novel Single Chain Antibody Fragments Recognising VP2 of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotypes A, O, and SAT 2
    (Academic Press Inc., 2019-05-25) Salem, R.; El-Kholy, A. A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mohamed
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exhibits a high degree of antigenic diversity among its serotypes, requiring several anti-FMDV antibodies for its laboratory diagnosis, which complicated the used techniques. To conquer this cumbersome, we developed a new panel of different single-chain fragment variable (scFv) for serotype-independent detection of FMDV. The recombinant VP2 capsid protein, as a relatively conserved protein among FMDV serotypes, was expressed in E. Coli, and injected in mice. Spleen's RNA was extracted for isolating the coding sequences of IgG variable domains that were assembled into repertoires of scFv. Phage library displaying scFv was constructed with ∼1.9 × 10⁸ plaque forming units. Characterization of the library showed eight of unique scFvs, which were expressed as bacterial periplasmic proteins with apparent molecular weight of ∼27 kDa. Our data revealed the broad-spectrum binding affinity of the eight scFvs as both coating and tracing antibodies to FMDV serotypes A, O, and SAT 2. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.
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    Modes of Occurrence of Rare-Earth Elements (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu) in Coals of Northern Asia (Review)
    (Pleiades Publishing, 2019-05-18) Arbuzov, S. I.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Il’enok, S. S.; Maslov, S. G.; Mezhibor, A. M.; Blokhin, M. G.; Finkelman, Robert B.
    Abstract: The modes of occurrence of six rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu) in low-rank coals (lignites and sub-bituminous coals; also referred to as brown coals) from different deposits of Siberia, the Russian Far East, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia were studied using two selective leaching methods. Selective extraction of organic compounds included the extraction of organic substances with minimal effects on the mineral matter was only used for low-rank coals. The second method of the selective leaching of rare-earth elements (REE) from mineral matter in brown and bituminous coals used ammonium acetate, conc. HCl, conc. HF and 10% HNO₃ . The content of the six rare-earth elements in all phases (bitumen, humic acids, and residues) was determined by INAA. It was found that in the early stages of coal formation the bulk of the REE was associated with the organic matter primarily humic substances. Release of REE from humic substances during coalification results in the formation of authigenic minerals. The proportion of the REE in organic forms is gradually reduced in the coalification process until there is a complete REE transition to mineral phases in anthracite and graphite. These investigations showed that the alteration of modes of occurrence of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu from primary organic compounds to primary minerals occurred simultaneously with the organic matter alteration over the coalification process from peat to anthracite. © 2019, Allerton Press, Inc.
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    Gene Correction for SCID-X1 In Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-04-09) Kildebeck, Eric J.
    Gene correction in human long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) could be an effective therapy for monogenic diseases of the blood and immune system. Here we describe an approach for X-linked sSevere cCombined iImmunodeficiency (SCID-X1) using targeted integration of a cDNA into the endogenous start codon to functionally correct disease-causing mutations throughout the gene. Using a CRISPR-Cas9/AAV6 based strategy, we achieve up to 20% targeted integration frequencies in LT-HSCs. As measures of the lack of toxicity we observe no evidence of abnormal hematopoiesis following transplantation and no evidence of off-target mutations using a high-fidelity Cas9 as a ribonucleoprotein complex. We achieve high levels of targeting frequencies (median 45%) in CD34 + HSPCs from six SCID-X1 patients and demonstrate rescue of lymphopoietic defect in a patient derived HSPC population in vitro and in vivo. In sum, our study provides specificity, toxicity and efficacy data supportive of clinical development of genome editing to treat SCID-Xl. ©2019 The Author(s).
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    Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Lower Gondwana Coals of the Talchir Coal Basin, India
    (Elsevier B.V., 2019-05-03) Mishra, V.; Chakravarty, S.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Varma, A. K.; Finkelman, Robert B.
    This study investigated the concentration, distribution, and modes of occurrences of rare earth elements in coal from the Talchir coal basin, Odisha State. This basin comprises two coal bearing Formations i.e. Barakar and Karharbari. Samples, collected from one borehole, were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, electron microprobe and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The coals are medium to high volatile, high ash and low sulphur. The Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium (REY) of the 34 coal samples varies from 29.6 ppm to 179.4 ppm with an average value of 91.0 ppm. The average value of total REY of the Barakar Formation (53.6 ppm) is considerably lower than the average value of Karharbari Formation (127.4 ppm). The average of the ratio of light to heavy rare earth elements (LREE/HREE) is also much higher in the Karharbari Formation (8.1) than in the Barakar Formation (4.4). Coals from both Formations show negative europium anomalies while only coals from the Karharbari Formation show a positive cerium anomaly. These differences indicate differences in depositional conditions between the coals of the two Formations within the coal basin. Through EPMA analysis, REY-bearing phosphates are found to be present in this coal in clay minerals. Monazites are found in Mg aluminosilicate matrix as dispersed minerals which may be detrital and monazite-bearing chlorite indicates that the monazites are formed by hydrothermal alteration during coalification. Ag, Ba and Zr are found as replacements or substitution in the REY phosphates. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.