Structured Weyl Points in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermionic Superfluids
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We demonstrate that a Weyl point, widely examined in 3D Weyl semimetals and superfluids, can develop a pair of nondegenerate gapless spheres. Such a bouquet of two spheres is characterized by three distinct topological invariants of manifolds with full energy gaps, i.e., the Chern number of a 0D point inside one developed sphere, the winding number of a 1D loop around the original Weyl point, and the Chern number of a 2D surface enclosing the whole bouquet. We show that such structured Weyl points can be realized in the superfluid quasiparticle spectrum of a 3D degenerate Fermi gas subject to spin-orbit couplings and Zeeman fields, which supports Fulde-Ferrell superfluids as the ground state.