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dc.contributor.authorBalikhin, Michael A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorShprits, Yuri Y.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWalker, Simon N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Lunjinen_US
dc.contributor.authorCornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicoleen_US
dc.contributor.authorDandouras, Iannisen_US
dc.contributor.authorSantolik, Ondrejen_US
dc.contributor.authorCarr, Christopheren_US
dc.contributor.authorYearby, Keith H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWeiss, Benjaminen_US
dc.descriptionIncludes supplementen_US
dc.description.abstractA number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as 'equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes 'ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers through NASA grant NNX10AK99G; NSF GEM AGS-1203747; UC Lab Fee grant 12-LR- 235337. Praemium Academiae grants LH12231, and LH14010; EPSRC grant EP/H00453X/1; NSF grant AGS-1405041.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_US
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0 (Attribution)en_US
dc.rights©2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.en_US
dc.sourceNature Communications
dc.subjectPlasma wavesen_US
dc.subjectSpace plasmasen_US
dc.subjectHarmonics (Electric waves)en_US
dc.titleObservations of Discrete Harmonics Emerging from Equatorial Noiseen_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationBalikhin, Michael A., Yuri Y. Shprits, Simon N. Walker, Lunjin Chen, et al. 2015. "Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise." Nature Communications 6, doi: 10.1038/ncomms8703en_US
dc.contributor.ORCID0000-0003-2489-3571 (Chen, L)en_US

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