A Systematic Comparison of the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and Anisotropy of Remanence (ARM) Fabrics of Ignimbrites: Examples from the Quaternary Bandelier Tuff, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico and Miocene Ignimbrites near Gold Point, Nevada
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Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been widely used to define petrofabrics in silicic, elevated-temperature pyroclastic deposits (i.e., ignimbrites) and these fabrics have been successfully utilized to infer pyroclastic emplacement, or transport, directions in many cases. Selected exposures of the Quaternary Bandelier Tuff, exposed in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, have been studied to systematically compare anisotropy of remanence (mainly anhysteretic remanent magnetization, AARM) with AMS data from the same sites. In addition, as part of a broad study to understand the Neogene history of deformation associated with a displacement transfer system in the western Great Basin, paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric data have been collected from ignimbrites that originated from the Timber Mountain Caldera complex, active from about 14 to 11.5 Ma. Here, AMS and AARM are compared for 21 (9-12 samples per site) sites in the Quaternary Bandelier Tuff, and 15 (9-10 samples per site) sites in Timber Mountain ignimbrites, with each chosen to examine the effects of varying degrees of welding and crystal content on the fabrics obtained. The relationships between AARM and AMS fabrics for the selected sites are not uniform, and include normal, intermediate, reverse, and oblique fabrics. The differences may be controlled by the degree of welding and/or crystal content, which requires further explanation. Ultimately, the fabrics identified in both suites of rocks are compared with anisotropy of isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM) data, along with other rock magnetic data, to more fully evaluate the domain state control on the fabrics.