Adiabatically Tuning Quantized Supercurrents in an Annular Bose-Einstein Condensate
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The ability to generate and tune quantized persistent supercurrents is crucial for building superconducting or atomtronic devices with novel functionalities. In ultracold atoms, previous methods for generating quantized supercurrents are generally based on dynamical processes to prepare atoms in metastable excited states. Here, we show that arbitrary quantized circulation states can be adiabatically prepared and tuned as the ground state of a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate by utilizing spin-orbital-angular-momentum (SOAM) coupling and an external potential. There exists superfluid hysteresis for tuning supercurrents between different quantization values with nonlinear atomic interactions, which is explained by developing a nonlinear Landau-Zener theory. Our work will provide a powerful platform for studying SOAM-coupled ultracold atomic gases and building atomtronic circuits.