Observation of Acoustic Valley Vortex States and Valley-Chirality Locked Beam Splitting
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We report an experimental observation of the classical version of valley polarized states in a two-dimensional hexagonal sonic crystal. The acoustic valley states, which carry specific linear momenta and orbital angular momenta, were selectively excited by external Gaussian beams and conveniently confirmed by the pressure distribution outside the crystal, according to the criterion of momentum conservation. The vortex nature of such intriguing bulk crystal states was directly characterized by scanning the phase profile inside the crystal. In addition, we observed a peculiar beam-splitting phenomenon, in which the separated beams are constructed by different valleys and locked to the opposite vortex chirality. The exceptional sound transport, encoded with valley-chirality locked information, may serve as the basis of designing conceptually interesting acoustic devices with unconventional functions.