Haptic Rendering in 3D Immersive Environments
Since haptic rendering brings more real, more immersive and engaging experience into the 3D immersive environment, it greatly catches people's attention in broad fields such as medical therapy, gaming industry, robotics, etc. Haptic rendering in 3D immersive environment has become one of the trending research topics in recent years. Though there are many researches that well investigated this topic, there are still new challenges when introducing haptic feedback into the applications like Virtual / Mixed Reality and Tele-immersion. In 3D immersive environment, haptic rendering not only requires efficiency, stability, transparency, but also needs synchronization, disparity handling, delay compensation in networked applications. This dissertation aims to overcome the emerging challenges in the haptic-enabled 3D immersive environments. Specifically, three main research tasks are identified in the dissertation: bidirectional haptic rendering in 3D Tele-immersion, haptic rendering of 3D streaming deformable surface, and haptic-enabled 3D deformation. To solve the research problems, a set of novel approaches are presented in this dissertation. A Haptic-enabled Tele-Immersive Musculoskeletal Examination (H-TIME) system is developed that enables bi-directional force feedback and motion, facilitating remote evaluation of the patients associated with joints and muscles. A real-time haptic method is proposed to interact with 3D deformable streaming surface which is under 3D reconstruction. A real-time haptic rendering method is proposed to enable the interaction with 3D deformable objects using (multiple) haptic devices, which is able to provide with natural and smooth haptic rendering and fast stable 3D deformation. Based on the proposed methods, applications are developed to solve the real-world problems in medicine, training, and robotics.