Angle-Domain Approach for Parameter Estimation in High-Mobility OFDM with Fully/Partly Calibrated Massive ULA
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In this paper, we consider a downlink orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system from a base station to a high-speed train equipped with fully/partly calibrated massive uniform linear antenna-array (ULA) in wireless environments with abundant scatterers. Multiple Doppler frequency offsets (DFOs) stemming from intensive propagation paths together with transceiver oscillator frequency offset (OFO) result in a fast time-varying frequency-selective channel. We develop an angle domain carrier frequency offset (CFO, a general designation for DFO and OFO) estimation approach. A high-resolution beamforming network is designed to separate different DFOs into a set of parallel branches in angle domain such that each branch is mainly affected by a single dominant DFO. Then, a joint estimation algorithm for both maximum DFO and OFO is developed for fully calibrated ULA. Next, its estimation mean square error performance is analyzed under inter-subarray mismatches. To mitigate the detrimental effects of inter-subarray mismatches, we introduce a calibration-oriented beamforming parameter and develop the corresponding modified joint estimation algorithm for partly calibrated ULA. Moreover, the Cramer-Rao lower bound of CFO estimation is derived. Both theoretical and numerical results are provided to corroborate the proposed method.
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