In Vitro Evaluation of Cell Compatibility of Dental Cements Used with Titanium Implant Components
Marvin, Jason C.
Gallegos, Silvia I.
Rodrigues, Danieli C.
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Purpose To evaluate the biocompatibility of five dental cement compositions after directly exposing human gingival fibroblast (HGF) and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells to cement alone and cement applied on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) specimens. Materials and Methods Nanostructurally integrated bioceramic (NIB), resin (R), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and zinc phosphate (ZP) compositions were prepared according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Samples were prepared in cylindrical Teflon molds or applied over the entire surface of polished cpTi discs. All samples were cured for 0.5, 1, 12, or 24 hours post-mixing. Direct contact testing was conducted according to ISO 10993 by seeding 6-well plates at 350,000 cells/well. Plates were incubated at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 for 24 hours before individually plating samples and cpTi control discs. Plates were then incubated for an additional 24 hours. Microtetrazolium (MTT) cell viability assays were used to measure sample cytotoxicity. Results For samples that cured for 24 hours prior to direct contact exposure, only NIB and ZP cements when cemented on cpTi demonstrated cell viability percentages above the minimum biocompatibility requirement (>= 70%) for both the investigative cell lines. R, RMGIC, and ZOE cements exhibited moderate to severe cytotoxic effects on both cell lines in direct contact and when cemented on cpTi specimens. For HGF cells, ZOE cemented-cpTi specimens exhibited significantly decreased cytotoxicity, whereas RMGIC cemented-cpTi specimens exhibited significantly increased cytotoxicity. Conclusions Despite previous studies that showed enhanced cpTi corrosion activity for fluoride-containing compositions (NIB and ZP), there was no significant difference in cytotoxicity between cement alone and cemented-cpTi. In general, the MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells were more sensitive than HGF cells to cement composition. Ultimately, cement composition played a significant role in maintaining host cell compatibility. Results of this work help illustrate the impact of different cement formulations on host cell health and emphasize the need for understanding material properties when selecting certain formulations of dental cements, which can ultimately influence the survival of dental implant systems.
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