Detoxification of Titanium Implant Surfaces: Evaluation of Surface Morphology and Pre-osteoblast Cell Compatibility
Success of a dental implant is primarily assessed by its surface condition and its capability to biologically integrate with surrounding soft and hard tissues. When the surface of an implant is compromised by bacterial adhesion, it can result in development of peri-implantitis and ultimately implant loss. One of the primary etiological factors resulting in peri-implantitis is the formation of a biofilm created by adhesion of bacteria on implant surfaces. Peri-implantitis is a site-specific disease that causes bone loss and inflammation around a functional implant. Clinicians commonly use a combination of mechanical debridement/detoxification methods with acidic chemicals to remove adhered biofilm. It is hypothesized that acidic conditions caused by these detoxification chemicals, in addition to mechanical abrasion, can lead to surface changes including pitting, corrosion and discoloration, which can affect the growth of bone-forming cells. The study’s main goal was to evaluate changes in surface morphology of titanium after bacterial adhesion and detoxification procedures. In addition, proliferation and differentiation of bone-forming cells were analyzed after exposure to bacterial adhesion and detoxification procedures on implant surfaces to infer about re-osseointegration post-treatment.