Surface Photovoltage Characterization of Organic Photovoltaic Devices
Surface photovoltage response in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is determined using a Kelvin probe with variable illumination intensity and wavelength. The effect of device architecture, carrier transport layers, donor:acceptor combinations, and device processing conditions are studied. We observe a positive (negative) surface photovoltage response, corresponding to efficient accumulation of electrons (holes) at the top electrode in conventional (inverted) devices. The linear relationship between surface photovoltage and log(intensity) and the agreement with open circuit voltage indicate that surface photovoltage magnitude quantifies the separation of photogenerated carriers in organic solar cells at open circuit condition.