Locating and Monitoring Microseismicity, Hydraulic Fracture and Earthquake Rupture Using Elastic Time-Reversal Imaging




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Oxford Univ Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society



Locating and monitoring passive seismic sources provides us important information for studying subsurface rock deformation, injected fluid migration, regional stress conditions as well as fault rupture mechanism. In this paper, we present a novel passive-source monitoring approach using vector-based elastic time-reversal imaging. By solving the elastic wave equation using observed multicomponent records as boundary conditions, we first compute back-propagated elastic wavefields in the subsurface. Then, we separate the extrapolated wavefields into compressional (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) modes using the vector Helmholtz decomposition. A zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated pure-mode vector wavefields to produce passive-source images. We compare imaging results using three implementations, that is dot-product, energy and power. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the power imaging condition gives us the highest resolution and is less sensitive to the presence of random noises. To capture the propagation of microseismic fracture and earthquake rupture, we modify the traditional zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition by summing the multiplication of the separated P and S wavefields within local time windows, which enables us to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of earthquake rupture. 2-D and 3-D numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of accurately locating point sources, as well as delineating dynamic propagation of hydraulic fracture and earthquake rupture.



Seismology—Computer programs, Seismic-wave propagation, Finite differences, California--Hayward Fault, Tomography, Earthquakes



©2018 The Authors