Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of Glenoid Fracture Classifications by Ideberg, Euler and AO



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BioMed Central Ltd


Background: Representing 3%-5% of shoulder girdle injuries scapula fractures are rare. Furthermore, approximately 1% of scapula fractures are intraarticularfractures of the glenoid fossa. Because of uncertain fracture morphology and limited experience, the treatment of glenoid fossa fractures is difficult. The glenoid fracture classification by Ideberg (1984) and Euler (1996) is still commonly used in literature. In 2013 a new glenoid fracture classification was introduced by the AO. The purpose of this study was to examine the new AO classification in clinical practice in comparison with the classifications by Ideberg and Euler. Methods: In total CT images of 84 patients with glenoid fossa fractures from 2005 to 2018 were included. Parasagittal, paracoronary and axial reconstructions were examined according to the classifications of Ideberg, Euler and the AO by 3 investigators (orthopedic surgeon, radiologist, student of medicine) at three individual time settings. Inter-and intraobserver reliability of the three classification systems were ascertained by computing Interand Intraclass (ICCs) correlation coefficients using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, 95%-confidence intervals as well as F-tests for correlation coefficients. Results: Inter-and intraobserver reliability for the AO classification showed a perspicuous coherence (R = 0.74 and R = 0.79). Low to moderate intraobserver reliability for Ideberg (R = 0.46) and Euler classification (R = 0.41) was found. Furthermore, data show a low Interobserver reliability for both Ideberg and Euler classification (R <; 0.2). Both the Inter-and Intraclass reliability using AO is significantly higher than those using Ideberg and Euler (p < 0.05). Using the new AO classification, it was possible to find a proper class for every glenoid fossa fracture. On average, according to Euler classification 10 of 84 fractures were not classifiable whereas to Ideberg classification 21 of 84 fractures were not classifiable. Conclusion: The new AO classification system introduced 2013 facilitates reliable grading of glenoid fossa fractures with high inter-and intraobserver reliability in 84 patients using CT images. It should possibly be applied in order to enable a valid, reliable and consistent academic description of glenoid fossa fractures. The established classifications by Euler and Ideberg are not capable of providing a similar reliability.



Shoulder, Orthopedics, Rheumatology, Scapula, Glenoid Cavity, Fractures, Bone, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen


CC BY 4.0 (Attribution), CC0 1.0 (Public Domain) applies to data, ©2018 The Authors