Functional Magnetic Neuroimaging Data on Age-Related Differences in Task Switching Accuracy and Reverse Brain-Behavior Relationships
The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled “Age-related Differences in BOLD Modulation to Cognitive Control Costs in a Multitasking Paradigm: Global Switch, Local Switch, and Compatibility-Switch Costs” (Nashiro et al., 2018) . This article describes age-related differences in accuracies for various cognitive costs incurred during task switching across three different age-cohorts: younger (18–35 years), younger-old (50–64 years) and older-old (65–80 years). The cognitive costs evaluated were global switch costs (GSC), local switch costs (LSC) and compatibility switch costs (CSC). Whole brain analyses were conducted to determine the brain regions sensitive to these cognitive costs, irrespective of age. Furthermore, age-related differences in brain-behavior relationships were evaluated by correlating activations from these regions with global switch costs, indexed by both response times and accuracies, for younger and older adults separately. Activations of age-sensitive regions during the task, where younger adults activated more than the combined groups of older adults, were also correlated with response times and accuracies to determine age-related differences in brain-behavior relationships of these under-recruited brain regions by older adults.