# Center for Lithospheric Studies

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"The Center for Lithospheric Studies is a research institute devoted to the study of the lithosphere through geophysical and geochemical means. The Center operates in close cooperation with the Department of Geosciences at The University of Texas at Dallas. The UT Dallas Geophysical Consortium is an industrial consortium of oil, service, and computer companies that was formed in 1987 for the support of research in exploration and reservoir geophysics at The Center for Lithospheric Studies (CLS) at The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). 2011 is our 25th consecutive year of operation."

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Item Combining Multidirectional Source Vector with Antitruncation-Artifact Fourier Transform to Calculate Angle Gathers from Reverse Time Migration in Two Steps(Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2017-08-11) Tang, Chen; McMechan, George A.; 103911551 (McMechan, GA); Tang, Chen; McMechan, George A.Because receiver wavefields reconstructed from observed data are not as stable as synthetic source wavefields, the source-propagation vector and the reflector normal have often been used to calculate angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from reverse time migration. However, the existing data flows have three main limitations: (1) Calculating the propagation direction only at the wavefields with maximum amplitudes ignores multiarrivals; using the crosscorrelation imaging condition at each time step can include the multiarrivals but will result in backscattering artifacts. (2) Neither amplitude picking nor Poynting-vector calculations are accurate for overlapping wavefields. (3) Calculating the reflector normal in space is not accurate for a structurally complicated reflection image, and calculating it in the wavenumber (k) domain may give Fourier truncation artifacts. We address these three limitations in an improved data flow with two steps: During imaging, we use a multidirectional Poynting vector (MPV) to calculate the propagation vectors of the source wavefield at each time step and output intermediate source-angle-domain CIGs (SACIGs). After imaging, we use an antitruncation-artifact Fourier transform (ATFT) to convert SACIGs to ADCIGs in the k-domain. To achieve the new flow, another three innovative aspects are included. In the first step, we develop an angle-tapering scheme to remove the Fourier truncation artifacts during the wave decomposition (ofMPV) while preserving the amplitudes, and we use a wavefield decomposition plus angle-filter imaging condition to remove the backscattering artifacts in the SACIGs. In the second step, we compare two algorithms to remove the Fourier truncation artifacts that are caused by the plane-wave assumption. One uses an antileakage FT (ALFT) in local windows; the other uses an antitruncation-artifact FT, which relaxes the planewave assumption and thus can be done for the global space. The second algorithm is preferred. Numerical tests indicate that this new flow (source-side MPV plus ATFT) gives high-quality ADCIGs.Item Common-Reflection-Point Migration Velocity Analysis of 2D P-Wave Data From TTI Media(Soc Exploration Geophysicists, 2014-05) Oropeza, Ernesto V.; McMechan, George A.; McMechan, George A.We have developed a common-reflection-point (CRP)-based kinematic migration velocity analysis for 2D P-wave reflection data to estimate the four transversely isotropic (TI) parameters VPo, δ, and ε, and the tilt angle ϕ of the symmetry axis in a TI medium. In each iteration, the tomographic parameter was updated alternately with prestack anisotropic ray-based migration. Iterations initially used layer stripping to reduce the number of degrees of freedom; after convergence was reached, a couple of more iterations over all parameters and all CRPs ensured global interlayer coupling and parameter interaction. The TI symmetry axis orientation was constrained to be locally perpendicular to the reflectors. The VPo dominated the inversion, and so it was weighted less than δ and ε in the parameter updates. Estimates of δ and ε were influenced if the error in ϕ was >5⁰ estimates of VPo were also influenced if the error in ϕ was >10⁰. Examples included data for a simple model with a homogeneous TI layer whose dips allowed recovery of all anisotropy parameters from noise-free data, and a more realistic model (the BP tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) model) for which only VPo, delta, and ϕ were recoverable. The adequacy of the traveltimes predicted by the inverted anisotropic models was tested by comparing migrated images and common image gathers, with those produced using the known velocity models.Item Comparison of Methods for Extracting ADCIGS from RTM(Soc Exploration Geophysicists, 2014-04-01) Jin, Hu; McMechan, George A.; Guan, Huimin; McMechan, George A.Methods for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) during 2D reverse-time migration fall into three main categories; direction-vector-based methods, local-plane-wave decomposition methods, and local-shift imaging condition methods. The direction-vector-based methods, which use either amplitude gradients or phase gradients, cannot handle overlapping events because of an assumption of one propagation direction per imaging point per imaging time; however, the ADCIGs from the direction-vector-based methods have the highest angle resolution. A new direction-vector-based method using instantaneous phase gradients in space and time gives the same propagation directions and ADCIGs as those obtained by the Poynting vector or polarization vector based methods, where amplitudes are large. Angles calculated by the phase gradients have larger uncertainties at smaller amplitudes, but they do not significantly degrade the ADCIGs because they contribute only small amplitudes. The local-plane-wave decomposition and local-shift imaging condition methods, implemented either by a Fourier transform or by a slant stack transform, can handle overlapping events, and produce very similar angle gathers. ADCIGs from both methods depend on the local window size in which the transforms are done. In small local windows, both methods produce ADCIGs with low noise, but also with low angle resolution; in large windows, they have high angle resolution, but contain smeared artifacts.Item Estimation of Gas Hydrate and Free Gas Saturation, Concentration, and Distribution from Seismic Data(Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2018-08-24) Lu, Shaoming; McMechan, George A.; Lu, Shaoming; McMechan, George A.Gas hydrates contain a major untapped source of energy and are of potential economic importance. The theoretical models to estimate gas hydrate saturation from seismic data predict significantly different acoustic/ elastic properties of sediments containing gas hydrate; we do not know which to use. Thus, we develop a new approach based on empirical relations. The water-filled porosity is calibrated (using well-log data) to acoustic impedance twice: one calibration where gas hydrate is present and the other where free gas is present. The water-filled porosity is used in a combination of Archie equations (with corresponding parameters for either gas hydrate or free gas) to estimate gas hydrate or free gas saturations. The method is applied to single-channel seismic data and well logs from Ocean Drilling Program leg 164 from the Blake Ridge area off the east coast of North America. The gas hydrate above the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is estimated to occupy Ο3-8% of the pore space (Ο2-6% by volume). Free gas is interpreted to be present in three main layers beneath the BSR, with average gas saturations of 11-14%, 7-11%, and 1-5% of the pore space (6-8%, 4-6%, and 1-3% by volume), respectively. The estimated saturations of gas hydrate are very similar to those estimated from vertical seismic profile data and generally agree with those from independent, indirect estimates obtained from resistivity and chloride measurements. The estimated free gas saturations agree with measurements from a pressure core sampler. These results suggest that locally derived empirical relations between porosity and acoustic impedance can provide cost-effective estimates of the saturations, concentration, and distribution of gas hydrate and free gas away from control wells.Item Up/Down and P/S Decompositions of Elastic Wavefields Using Complex Seismic Traces with Applications to Calculating Poynting Vectors and Angle-Domain Common-Image Gathers from Reverse Time Migrations(Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2018-06-01) Wang, Wenlong; McMechan, George A.; Tang, Chen; Xie, F.; 0000-0002-0255-6147 (Wang, W); 103911551 (McMechan, GA); Wang, Wenlong; McMechan, George A.; Tang, ChenSeparations of up- and down-going as well as of P- and S-waves are often a part of processing of multicomponent recorded data and propagating wavefields. Most previous methods for separating up/down propagating wavefields are expensive because of the requirement to save time steps to perform Fourier transforms over time. An alternate approach for separation of up-and down-going waves, based on extrapolation of complex data traces is extended from acoustic to elastic, and combined with P- and S-wave decomposition by decoupled propagation. This preserves all the information in the original data and eliminates the need for a Fourier transform over time, thereby significantly reducing the storage cost and improving computational efficiency. Wavefield decomposition is applied to synthetic elastic VSP data and propagating wavefield snapshots. Poynting vectors obtained from the particle velocity and stress fields after P/S and up/down decompositions are much more accurate than those without because interference between the corresponding wavefronts is significantly reduced. Elastic reverse time migration with the P/S and up/down decompositions indicated significant improvement compared with those without decompositions, when applied to elastic data from a portion of the Marmousi2 model.