ItemTraining Needs of Clinical and Research Professionals to Optimize Minority Recruitment and Retention in Cancer Clinical Trials(Springer, 2017-08-03) Niranjan, Soumya J.; Durant, Raegan W.; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; Cook, Elise D.; Fouad, Mona N.; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Rutland, Sarah B.; Simoni, Zachary R.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Simoni, Zachary R.The study of disparities in minority recruitment to cancer clinical trials has focused primarily on inquiries among minority patient populations. However, clinical trial recruitment is complex and requires a broader appreciation of the multiple factors that influence minority participation. One area that has received little attention is minority recruitment training for professionals who assume various roles in the clinical trial recruitment process. Therefore, we assessed the perspectives of cancer center clinical and research personnel on their training and education needs toward minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. Ninety-one qualitative interviews were conducted at five U.S. cancer centers among four stakeholder groups: cancer center leaders, principal investigators, referring clinicians, and research staff. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analyses focused on response data related to training for minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. Four prominent themes were identified: (1) Research personnel are not currently being trained to focus on recruitment and retention of minority populations; (2) Training for minority recruitment and retention provides for a specific focus on factors influencing minority research participation; (3) Training on cultural awareness may help to bridge cultural gaps between potential minority participants and research professionals; (4) Views differ regarding the importance of research personnel training designed to focus on recruitment of minority populations. There is a lack of systematic training for minority recruitment. Many stakeholders acknowledged the benefits of minority recruitment training and welcomed training that focuses on increasing cultural awareness to increase the participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials. ItemBrazil, BITs and FDI: A Synthetic Control Approach(Brill Academic Publishers, 2019-02-11) Cavallo, Paulo; Cavallo, PauloThe explosion in bilateral investment treaties (BITs) signed between countries in the 1990s and the concurrent surge in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows draw substantial attention in the literature. This article tackles the controversial relationship between BITs and FDI inflows using an innovative technique: the synthetic control method. Brazil is a peculiar case because it is one of the few cases where FDI inflows had a significant surge even in the complete absence of BITs. Did foreign investors really not need BITs in order to invest in Brazil? I find evidence that, although Brazil received substantial amounts of FDI even in the absence of BITs, had they enacted any BIT, the inflow in the period would have been greater. The method builds a synthetic Brazil from a pool of other countries providing this way a better comparative analysis. The findings are robust to both in-space and in-time placebo experiments. ItemHousing First and Single-Site Housing(MDPI AG, 2019-04-24) Chen, Patricia M.; Chen, Patricia M.In 2002, the United States embraced the Housing First approach, which led to the widespread adoption of this approach in cities across the nation. This resulted in programmatic variations of Housing First and calls for clarity about the Housing First model. This study uses a comparative case study approach to explore the differences across Housing First programs in five selected cities: Dallas, Austin, Houston, Los Angeles, and Salt Lake City. It focuses on one aspect of programmatic variation: housing type. Data collection consisted of in-depth interviews with 53 participants, documentation review, and site visits. Findings show differences in the type of housing used and explore the reasons why Housing First programs select such housing configurations. The results highlight how programmatic variation does not necessarily mean the Housing First model lacks clarity. Rather, homeless service providers adapt the model to address local challenges and needs, resulting in the variation seen across programs and cities. The findings elucidate the debate about variation in the Housing First model and the call for fidelity. © 2019 by the authors. ItemThe Possibilities of Community Redevelopment with Islamic Finance(Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-03-04) Hummel, D.; Hashmi, Ayesha T.; Hashmi, Ayesha T.Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of a profit and loss sharing approach to tax increment financing (TIF) districts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based on this approach was distributed to representatives of community redevelopment authorities (CRAs) in the State of Florida to ascertain practitioner feedback. Findings: Although a majority of the respondents did not feel it was possible for political, economic and legal reasons, some did feel that it was a practical, reasonable and sustainable approach to financing projects for economic development. Some responses were correlated, with others indicating that certain beliefs framed their answers to the questions. Research limitations/implications: The surveys were only distributed to CRAs in the State of Florida. Future research will need to include other CRAs in other states to make the findings more generalizable. In addition, the results are merely descriptive and are not an assessment of a successful application. Practical implications: The need for more development in blighted areas of many cities across the USA will put emphasis on innovative approaches in financing this. The growth of Islamic finance in the USA and the regulatory framework for it might open a doorway for its application in this area. Originality/value: This is the first attempt to apply an Islamic financing methodology to local economic development in the USA, with practitioner feedback. ©2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. ItemThe Determinants of Military Expenditure in Asia and Oceania, 1992-2016: A Dynamic Panel Analysis(De Gruyter) Hou, Dongfang; Hou, DongfangUsing a dynamic panel approach, this article examines the determinants of military expenditures for 29 Asian and Oceanian countries during 1992-2016. A two-step difference-GMM estimator is applied. Both the impact of Chinese and US military expenditure on sample countries' military budgets are considered. Results show that sample countries do not respond to Chinese military expenditure; however, these countries respond to US military expenditure. Moreover, lagged military expenditure, GDP, population, and trade openness are important determinants of military spending, while wars and regime type are not. ©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston 2018. ItemOverlapping Geographic Clusters of Food Security and Health: Where do Social Determinants and Health Outcomes Converge in the U.S.?(Elsevier Ltd) Leonard, T.; Hughes, A. E.; Donegan, Connor; Santillan, A.; Pruitt, S. L.; Donegan, ConnorWe identified overlapping geographic clusters of food insecurity and health across U.S. counties to identify potential shared mechanisms for geographic disparities in health and food insecurity. By analyzing health variables compiled as part of the 2014 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings, we constructed four health indices and compared their spatial patterns to spatial patterns found in food insecurity data obtained from 2014 Feeding America's County Map the Meal Gap data. Clusters of low and high food security that overlapped with clusters of good or poor health were identified using Local Moran's I statistics. Next, multinomial logistic regressions were estimated to identify sociodemographic, urban/rural, and economic correlates of counties lying within overlapping clusters. In general, poor health and high food insecurity clusters, “unfavorable cluster overlaps” were present in the Mississippi Delta, Black Belt, Appalachia, and Alaska. Overlapping good health and low food insecurity clusters, “favorable cluster overlaps” were less common and located in the Corn Belt and New England. Counties with higher black populations and higher poverty were associated with an increased likelihood of lying within overlapping clusters of poor health and high food insecurity. Generally consistent patterns in spatial overlaps between food security and health indicate potential for shared causal mechanisms. Identified regions and county-level characteristics associated with being located inside of overlapping clusters may be used in future place-based intervention and policy. ItemRegional-Level Carbon Emissions Modelling and Scenario Analysis: A STIRPAT Case Study in Henan Province, China(MDPI AG, 2018-11-05) Zhang, Pengyan; He, Jianjian; Hong, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Chengzhe; Pang, Bo; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Yu; Qin, ChengzheGlobal warming has brought increased attention to the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development. Research on the driving factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption can provide a scientific basis for regional energy savings, as well as emissions reduction and sustainable development. Henan Province is a major agricultural province in China, and it is one of most populous provinces. Industrial development and population growth are the causes of carbon emissions. The STIRPAT model was conducted for analyzing carbon emissions and the driving factors for future carbon emission in Henan Province. The results show that: carbon emissions and energy consumption in Henan Province presented a rising trend from 1995 to 2014; Energy consumption due to population growth is the main contributor to carbon emissions in Henan Province. As every 1% increase in the population, GDP per-capita, energy intensity, and the level of urbanization development will contribute to the growth of emissions by 1.099, 0.193, 0.043, and 0.542%, respectively. The optimization of the industrial structure can reduce carbon emissions in Henan Province, as suggested by the results, when the tertiary sector increased by more than 1%, the total energy consumption of carbon emissions reduced by 1.297%. The future pattern of carbon emissions in Henan Province is predicted to increase initially and then follows by a decreasing trend, according to scenario analysis; and maintaining a low population growth rate, and a high growth rate of GDP per-capita and technical level is the best mode for social and economic development. ItemThe Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime: Evidence from State Panel Data, 1990-2006(Public Library of Science, 2014-03) Morris, Robert G.; TenEyck, Michael; Barnes, James C.; Kovandzic, Tomislav; 0000 0003 5627 7714 (Barnes, JC); 0000 0000 5311 5742 (Kovandzic, T); 2011138406 (Barnes, JC); 2006005160 (Kovandzic, T); 87819498 (Murdoch, JC)Background: Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML) poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes. Methods: Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI. Findings: Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates. Conclusions: These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes. ItemIndividual and group IQ predict inmate violence(Elsevier, Inc., 2012) Diamond, Brie; Morris, Robert G.; Barnes, James C.There is a long tradition of theoretical and empirical research linking intelligence to criminal activity. At the same time, the extant literature has been slow to examine this relationship in other settings. One such setting in which this relationship may also manifest is the prison environment, where knowledge on the determinants of prison misconduct has important implications for prison management and security. Drawing from a representative sample of inmates from a large Southern state in the US, the current study presents the first assessment of the relationship between intelligence and prison misconduct. The effect of intelligence, measured via the WAIS-R, on violent prison misconduct is analyzed controlling for inmate and prison-level factors. Results indicated that the individual’s IQ, as well as the average IQ of the prison unit, was significantly and negatively related to violent prison misconduct. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.