Krawczyk, Daniel C.

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Dr. Krawcyzk is an associate professor in the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences and is also involved in research at UTD's Center for BrainHealth. His research is currently focused on reasoning and social cognition in disorders such as autism and traumatic brain injury. Dr. Krawczyk is jointly appointed in the Psychiatry Department at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. There he is affiliated with the Advanced Imaging Research Center (AIRC) devoted to using functional brain imaging methods to study cognition in healthy and disordered populations.

Learn more about Dr. Krawcyzk on his BBS and Lab pages.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
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    Relative Activation Patterns Associated with Self-Transcendent and Self-Enhancement Core Values: An fMRI Study of Basic Human Values Theory Concepts in Males
    (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-04-13) Teed, Adam R.; Rakic, Jelena; Mark, D. B.; Krawcyzk, Daniel C.; 0000-0003-3677-7164 (Teed, AR); Teed, Adam R.; Rakic, Jelena; Krawcyzk, Daniel C.
    Core values have been shown to influence a variety of social behaviors, but research on the brain networks supporting their effects is sparse. While undergoing fMRI scanning, twenty male participants evaluated descriptions of real-world activities according to how worthwhile they were and how likely they were to participate in them. Each activity was categorized according to contexts conceptualized in the Basic Human Values Theory (BHVT) model of core values. We investigated two Self-enhancement values (Power and Achievement) and two Self-transcendent values (Benevolence and Universalism). Behavioral results indicated that Achievement and Benevolence activities were rated higher on both worthiness and participation willingness than Power and Universalism activities. Neuroimaging results revealed that self-transcendence activities elicited greater medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activation relative to self-enhancement activities during participation rated trials. Contrasting Power, Benevolence, and Universalism activities against Achievement activities during participation rated trials revealed a network of regions critical for moral processing, suggesting that activities corresponding to these three values were considered within a moral framework. No brain regions demonstrated activity that tracked behavioral ratings associated with specific values. This study expands upon previous core values research by demonstrating that real-world contexts related to different BHVT values elicit different brain regions. ©2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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    The Influence of Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Men's Judgments of Social Dominance and Trustworthiness: An fMRI Study of Neutral Faces
    (Elsevier Ltd) Teed, Adam R.; Han, K.; Rakic, J.; Mark, D. B.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Teed, Adam R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
    Cues signaling trust and dominance are crucial for social life. Previous studies on the effects of oxytocin (OT) nasal sprays on trustworthiness evaluations have been inconsistent and its influence on dominance is unknown. Vasopressin (AVP) may also influence social cue perception, but even fewer investigations have evaluated this possibility. We evaluated the effects of intranasal OT and AVP compared to placebo control during three double-blinded functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions. Twenty males received a pseudo-randomized order of nasal spray conditions and rated the trustworthiness and dominance of neutral faces. OT increased facial dominance ratings compared to placebo. Neuroimaging results revealed an inverse relationship between brain activation and face ratings for OT compared to placebo in regions involved in processing emotional expressions. Specifically, the right superior temporal gyrus was attenuated as ratings increased and the left precuneus selectively diminished with increasing dominance ratings. Additionally, OT increased functional connectivity between frontoparietal regions and the right amygdala for faces rated as highly dominant, but OT increased connectivity between the fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, and bilateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) for faces perceived as highly trustworthy. Overall, OT increased the perception of dominance but did not influence trustworthiness judgments. However, we observed regional neural effects for OT that differed between judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. AVP attenuated left temporoparietal junction activity as face ratings increased, a result consistent with AVP influencing mentalization. AVP also led to increased left amygdala and right VTA connectivity with the putamen, which is consistent with cue-driven, habitual responses. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
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    Neuroplasticity of Cognitive Control Networks Following Cognitive Training for Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury
    (Elsevier Sci Ltd) Han, Kihwan; Chapman, Sandra Bond; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Han, Kihwan; Chapman, Sandra Bond; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
    Cognitive control is the ability to coordinate thoughts and actions to achieve goals. Cognitive control impairments are one of the most persistent and devastating sequalae of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). There have been efforts to improve cognitive control in individuals with post-acute TBI. Several studies have reported changes in neuropsychological measures suggesting the efficacy of cognitive training in improving cognitive control. Yet, the neural substrates of improved cognitive control after training remains poorly understood. In the current study, we identified neural plasticity induced by cognitive control training for TBI using resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Fifty-six individuals with chronic mild TBI (9 years post- injury on average) were randomized into either a strategy-based cognitive training group (N = 26) or a knowledge-based training group (active control condition; N = 30) for 8 weeks. We acquired a total of 109 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from 45 individuals before training, immediately post-training, and 3 months post- training. Relative to the controls, the strategy-based cognitive training group showed monotonic increases in connectivity in two cognitive control networks (i.e., cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks) across time points in multiple brain regions (p(voxel) < 0.001, p(cluster) < 0.05). Analyses of brain-behavior relationships revealed that frontoparietal network connectivity over three time points within the strategy-based cognitive training group was positively associated with the trail making scores (p(voxel) < 0.001, p(cluster) < 0.05). These findings suggest that training-induced neuroplasticity continues through chronic phases of TBI and that rsFC can serve as a neuroimaging biomarker of evaluating the efficacy of cognitive training for TBI.
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    Expert Analogy Use in a Naturalistic Setting
    (Frontiers Research Foundation) Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance.
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    Neural Responses During Social and Self-Knowledge Tasks in Bulimia Nervosa
    McAdams, C. J.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
    Self-evaluation closely dependent upon body shape and weight is one of the defining criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN). We studied 53 adult women, 17 with BN, 18 with a recent history of anorexia nervosa (AN), and 18 healthy comparison women, using three different fMRI tasks that required thinking about self-knowledge and social interactions: the Social Identity task, the Physical Identity task, and the Social Attribution task. Previously, we identified regions of interest (ROI) in the same tasks using whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of the healthy comparison women and women with a recent history of AN. Here, we report on the neural activations in those ROIs in subjects with BN. In the Social Attribution task, we examined activity in the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), an area frequently associated with mentalization. In the Social Identity task, we examined activity in the precuneus (PreC) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). In the Physical Identity task, we examined activity in a ventral region of the dACC. Interestingly, in all tested regions, the average activation in subjects with bulimia was more than the average activation levels seen in the subjects with a history of anorexia but less than that seen in healthy subjects. In three regions, the RTPJ, the PreC, and the dAC.1/3871C, group responses in the subjects with bulimia were significantly different from healthy subjects but not subjects with anorexia. The neural activations of people with BN performing fMRI tasks engaging social processing are more similar to people with AN than healthy people. This suggests biological measures of social processes may be helpful in characterizing individuals with eating disorders.
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    Expertise and Processing Distorted Structure in Chess
    Bartlett, James C.; Boggan, Amy L.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; 0000 0000 2840 6396 (Bartlett, JC); 85269816 (Bartlett)
    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how experts process degradation or distortion of stimuli within the expert domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose, and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly). Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure-a kind of exploratory chunking-that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.;
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    The Network Architecture of Cortical Processing in Visuo-Spatial Reasoning
    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Motes, Michael A.; Rypma, Bart; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Center for BrainHealth.
    Reasoning processes have been closely associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC), but specifically emerge from interactions among networks of brain regions. Yet it remains a challenge to integrate these brain-wide interactions in identifying the flow of processing emerging from sensory brain regions to abstract processing regions, particularly within PFC. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while participants performed a visuo-spatial reasoning task. We found increasing involvement of occipital and parietal regions together with caudal-rostral recruitment of PFC as stimulus dimensions increased. Brain-wide connectivity analysis revealed that interactions between primary visual and parietal regions predominantly influenced activity in frontal lobes. Caudal-to-rostral influences were found within left-PFC. Right-PFC showed evidence of rostral-to-caudal connectivity in addition to relatively independent influences from occipito-parietal cortices. In the context of hierarchical views of PFC organization, our results suggest that a caudal-to-rostral flow of processing may emerge within PFC in reasoning tasks with minimal top-down deductive requirements.

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