ItemInnovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their ApplicationsLee, Jeong Bong; Choi, Kyung-Hak; Yoo, KoangkiSU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters) high-aspect-ratio (up to 100: 1) 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV) exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro-and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so. ItemLiquid Metal Actuation-Based Reversible Frequency Tunable Monopole Antenna(Amer Inst Physics) Kim, Daeyoung; Pierce, Richard G.; Henderson, Rashaunda; Doo, Seok Joo; Yoo, Koangki; Lee, Jeong-BongWe report the fabrication and characterization of a reversible resonant frequency tunable antenna based on liquid metal actuation. The antenna is composed of a coplanar waveguide fed monopole stub printed on a copper-clad substrate, and a tunnel-shaped microfluidic channel linked to the printed metal. The gallium-based liquid metal can be injected and withdrawn from the channel in response to an applied air pressure. The gallium-based liquid metal is treated with hydrochloric acid to eliminate the oxide layer, and associated wetting/sticking problems, that arise from exposure to an ambient air environment. Elimination of the oxide layer allows for reliable actuation and repeatable and reversible tuning. By controlling the liquid metal slug on-demand with air pressure, the liquid metal can be readily controllable to connect/disconnect to the monopole antenna so that the physical length of the antenna reversibly tunes. The corresponding reversible resonant frequency changes from 4.9 GHz to 1.1 GHz. The antenna properties based on the liquid metal actuation were characterized by measuring the reflection coefficient and agreed well with simulation results. Additionally, the corresponding time-lapse images of controlling liquid metal in the channel were studied. ItemOne-Step Combined-Nanolithography-And-Photolithography for a 2d Photonic Crystal TM Polarizer(MDPI AG) Choi, Kyung-Hak; Huh, J.; Cui, Yonghao; Trivedi, Krutarth; Hu, Walter; Ju, B. -K; Lee, Jeong-BongPhotonic crystals have been widely investigated since they have great potential to manipulate the flow of light in an ultra-compact-scale and enable numerous innovative applications. 2D slab photonic crystals for the telecommunication C band at around 1550 nm have multi-scale structures that are typically micron-scale waveguides and deep sub-micron-scale air hole arrays. Several steps of nanolithography and photolithography are usually used for the fabrication of multi-scale photonic crystals. In this work, we report a one-step lithography process to pattern both micron and deep sub-micron features simultaneously for the 2D slab photonic crystal using combined-nanoimprint-andphotolithography. As a demonstrator, a 2D silicon photonic crystal transverse magnetic (TM) polarizer was fabricated, and the operation was successfully demonstrated. ItemFabrication of a Microneedle/CNT Hierarchical Micro/Nano Surface Electrochemical Sensor and its In-Vitro Glucose Sensing CharacterizationYoon, Youngsam; Lee, Gil Sik; Yoo, Koangki; Lee, Jeong-Bong; 0000 0001 3865 4673 (Lee, GS)We report fabrication of a microneedle-based three-electrode integrated electrochemical sensor and in-vitro characterization of this sensor for glucose sensing applications. A piece of silicon was sequentially dry and wet etched to form a 15 x 15 array of tall (approximately 380 μm) sharp silicon microneedles. Iron catalyst was deposited through a SU-8 shadow mask to form the working electrode and counter electrode. A multi-walled carbon nanotube forest was grown directly on the silicon microneedle array and platinum nano-particles were electrodeposited. Silver was deposited on the Si microneedle array through another shadow mask and chlorinated to form a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The 3-electrode electrochemical sensor was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 3~20 mM in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The sensor's amperometric response to the glucose concentration is linear and its sensitivity was found to be 17.73 ± 3 μA/mM-cm². This microneedle-based sensor has a potential to be used for painless diabetes testing applications.; ItemPDMS Based Coplanar Microfluidic Channels for the Surface Reduction of Oxidized GalinstanLi, G.; Parmar, M.; Kim, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Lee, D. -WGalinstan has the potential to replace mercury-one of the most popular liquid metals. However, the easy oxidation of Galinstan restricts wide applicability of the material. In this paper, we report an effective reduction method for the oxidized Galinstan using gas permeable PDMS (polydimethlysiloxane)-based microfluidic channel. The complete study is divided into two parts-reduction of Galinstan oxide and behavior of reduced Galinstan oxide in a microfluidic channel. The reduction of Galinstan oxide is discussed on the basis of static as well as dynamic angles. The contact angle analyses help to find the extent of reduction by wetting characteristics of the oxide, to optimize PDMS thickness and to select suitable hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentration. The highest advancing angle of 155° and receding angle of 136° is achieved with 200 μm thick PDMS film and 37 wt% (weight percent) HCl solution. The behavior of reduced Galinstan oxide is analyzed in PDMS-based coplanar microfluidic channels fabricated using a simple micromolding technique. Galinstan in the microfluidic channel is surrounded by another coplanar channel filled with HCl solution. Due to the excellent permeability of PDMS, HCl permeates through the PDMS wall between the two channels (interchannel PDMS wall) and achieves a continuous chemical reaction with oxidized Galinstan. A Lab VIEW controlled syringe pump is used for observing the behavior of HCl treated Galinstan in the microfluidic channel. Further optimization of the microfluidic device has been conducted to minimize the reoxidation of reduced Galinstan oxide in the microfluidic channel.