ItemEthno-Racial Similarity, Relationship Conflict and Trust in Supervisor-Subordinate Dyads(Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2019-04-08) Miller, Carliss D.; Richard, Orlando C.; Ford, David L., Jr.; 4758150943152626760001 (Richard, OC); Richard, Orlando C.; Ford, David L., Jr.Purpose In management research, little is known about how ethno-racial minority leaders interact with similar employees in supervisor-subordinate relationships. This study aims to examine and provide a deeper understanding of individuals' negative reactions to similar others, thus highlighting the double-edged nature of demographic similarity which has historically predicted positive affective reactions. Design/methodology/approach Using a survey design, the authors `f trust toward their ethno-racially similar subordinate. Originality/value This study draws on social identity theory and status characteristics theory to explain the contradictory processes and outcomes associated with dyadic ethno-racial similarity and suggests the conditions under which dyad racial similarity is connected with unfavorable outcomes. This framework helps to broaden the boundary conditions of relational demography to provide a more nuanced explanation of when and why minority leaders in demographically similar hierarchical dyads experience more relationship conflict, which ultimately diminishes trust. ItemTop Management Team Surface-Level Diversity, Strategic Change, and Long-Term Firm Performance: A Mediated Model Investigation(Sage Publications Inc., 2019-05-17) Wu, J.; Richard, Orlando C.; Zhang, X.; Macaulay, C.; Richard, OrlandoTop management team (TMT) heterogeneity research has not yet clearly revealed whether surface-level diversity (i.e., national culture, gender, age) contributes to or detracts from a firm’s financial performance and has not focused on how strategic change frequency (number international diversification or refocusing activities) serves as an intervening mechanism. Based on a sample of 1,993 firms between 2003 and 2015, we examine the mediating role of strategic change frequency in the relationship between surface-level diversity and long-term firm performance. Grounded in the upper echelons perspective, we find that TMT surface-level diversity increases rather than decreases strategic change frequency. Furthermore, our results are consistent with our hypothesized positive relationship between strategic change frequency and long-term firm performance. More important, we also find support for a longitudinal-based mediation model in which strategic change frequency in terms of diversification/refocusing actions (Time 2) transmits the positive effect of TMT surface-level diversity (Time 1) to long-term financial performance (Time 3) without accounting for any moderated conditions suggesting that mediation models warrant more utilization in the upper echelons research and internationalization research domains. Implications for the upper echelons theory in a more global world as if relates to the often unexplored surface-level diversity are offered. © The Authors 2019. ItemGender Diversity in Senior Management, Strategic Change, and Firm Performance: Examining the Mediating Nature of Strategic Change in High Tech Firms(Elsevier B.V., 2019-04-26) Triana, M. D. C.; Richard, Orlando C.; Su, W.; 4758150943152626760001 (Richard, OC); Richard, Orlando C.Only recently have enough women joined senior leadership positions in high tech firms for research on senior management gender diversity in high tech industries to be possible. We propose that senior management gender diversity fosters strategic change in high tech firms, especially under conditions where alliance formation intensity and top management team (TMT) educational background diversity are high, because the breadth of opportunity and knowledge associated with these conditions facilitates implementation of new ideas. Results show that both inter-organizational strategic alliance formation intensity and TMT educational background diversity positively moderate the relationship between senior management gender diversity and strategic change. We also find support for a moderated mediation model whereby a gender-diverse senior management positively impacts strategic change, which ultimately improves firm performance when the firm exhibits high alliance formation intensity and has a TMT that is diverse across educational background. ©2019 Elsevier B.V.