Kim, Moon J.

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Dr. Kim's research interests include:

  • Atomic structure and chemistry of materials
  • Phase transformations in solids
  • Heterogeneous materials integration by UHV wafer bonding
  • Nano-electronics
  • Flexible electronics
  • Nano-structured materials
  • Advanced characterization: High resolution TEM, Analytical TEM/STEM and in-situ microscopy, FIB, XRD, and surface analytical tools
Read more about Dr. Kim's research on his Research Explorer page.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 22
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    Kinetic Stability of Bulk LiNiO₂ and Surface Degradation by Oxygen Evolution in LiNiO₂-Based Cathode Materials
    (Wiley-VCH Verlag Gmbh, 2018-11-02) Kong, Fantai; Liang, Chaoping; Wang, Luhua; Zheng, Yongping; Perananthan, Sahila; Longo, Roberto C.; Ferraris, John P.; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Kong, Fantai; Liang, Chaoping; Wang, Luhua; Zheng, Yongping; Perananthan, Sahila; Longo, Roberto C.; Ferraris, John P.; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae
    Capacity degradation by phase changes and oxygen evolution has been the largest obstacle for the ultimate commercialization of high-capacity LiNiO₂-based cathode materials. The ultimate thermodynamic and kinetic reasons of these limitations are not yet systematically studied, and the fundamental mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this work, both phenomena are studied by density functional theory simulations and validation experiments. It is found that during delithiation of LiNiO₂, decreased oxygen reduction induces a strong thermodynamic driving force for oxygen evolution in bulk. However, oxygen evolution is kinetically prohibited in the bulk phase due to a large oxygen migration kinetic barrier (2.4 eV). In contrast, surface regions provide a larger space for oxygen migration leading to facile oxygen evolution. These theoretical results are validated by experimental studies, and the kinetic stability of bulk LiNiO₂ is clearly confirmed. Based on these findings, a rational design strategy for protective surface coating is proposed.
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    Engineering The Palladium-WSe₂ Interface Chemistry for Field Effect Transistors with High-Performance Hole Contacts
    (Amer Chemical Soc, 2018-12-07) Smyth, Christopher M.; Walsh, Lee A.; Bolshakov, Pavel; Catalano, Massimo; Addou, Rafik; Wang, Luhua; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Young, Chadwin D.; Hinkle, Christopher L.; Wallace, Robert M.; 0000-0001-5566-4806 (Wallace, RM); 0000-0003-0690-7423 (Young, CD); 0000-0003-2781-5149 (Kim, J); 0000-0002-6688-8626 (Walsh, LA); 0000-0002-5485-6600 (Hinkle, CD); 0000-0002-5454-0315 (Addou, R); 70133685 (Kim, J); Smyth, Christopher M.; Walsh, Lee A.; Bolshakov, Pavel; Catalano, Massimo; Addou, Rafik; Wang, Luhua; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Young, Chadwin D.; Hinkle, Christopher L.; Wallace, Robert M.
    Palladium has been widely employed as a hole contact to WSe₂ and has enabled, at times, the highest WSe₂ transistor performance. However, there are orders of magnitude variation across the literature in Pd-WSe₂ contact resistance and I-ON/I-OFF ratios with no true understanding of how to consistently achieve high-performance contacts. In this work, WSe₂ transistors with impressive I-ON/I-OFF ratios of 10(6) and Pd-WSe₂ Schottky diodes with near-zero variability are demonstrated utilizing Ohmic-like Pd contacts through deliberate control of the interface chemistry. The increased concentration of a PdSeₓ intermetallic is correlated with an Ohmic band alignment and concomitant defect passivation, which further reduces the contact resistance, variability, and barrier height inhomogeneity. The lowest contact resistance occurs when a 60 min post-metallization anneal at 400 degrees C in forming gas (FG) is performed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates this FG anneal produces 3x the concentration of PdSeₓ and an Ohmic band alignment, in contrast to that detected after annealing in ultrahigh vacuum, during which a 0.2 eV hole Schottky barrier forms. Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy highlight the necessity of the fabrication step to achieve high-performance contacts as no PdSeₓ forms, and WSe₂ is unperturbed by room temperature Pd deposition. However, at least one WSe₂ layer is consumed by the necessary interface reactions that form PdSeₓ requiring strategic exploitation of a sacrificial WSe₂ layer during device fabrication. The interface chemistry and structural properties are correlated with Pd-WSe₂ diode and transistor performance, and the recommended processing steps are provided to enable reliable high-performance contact formation.
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    Enhancing Interconnect Reliability and Performance by Converting Tantalum to 2D Layered Tantalum Sulfide at Low Temperature
    (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2019-06-11) Lo, C. -L; Catalano, Massimo; Khosravi, Ava; Ge, W.; Ji, Y.; Zemlyanov, D. Y.; Wang, Luhua; Addou, Rafik; Liu, Y.; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Moon J.; Chen, Z.; 0000-0001-5566-4806 (Wallace, RM); Catalano, Massimo; Khosravi, Ava; Wang, Luhua; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Moon J.
    The interconnect half-pitch size will reach ≈20 nm in the coming sub-5 nm technology node. Meanwhile, the TaN/Ta (barrier/liner) bilayer stack has to be >4 nm to ensure acceptable liner and diffusion barrier properties. Since TaN/Ta occupy a significant portion of the interconnect cross-section and they are much more resistive than Cu, the effective conductance of an ultrascaled interconnect will be compromised by the thick bilayer. Therefore, 2D layered materials have been explored as diffusion barrier alternatives. However, many of the proposed 2D barriers are prepared at too high temperatures to be compatible with the back-end-of-line (BEOL) technology. In addition, as important as the diffusion barrier properties, the liner properties of 2D materials must be evaluated, which has not yet been pursued. Here, a 2D layered tantalum sulfide (TaSₓ) with ≈1.5 nm thickness is developed to replace the conventional TaN/Ta bilayer. The TaSx ultrathin film is industry-friendly, BEOL-compatible, and can be directly prepared on dielectrics. The results show superior barrier/liner properties of TaSₓ compared to the TaN/Ta bilayer. This single-stack material, serving as both a liner and a barrier, will enable continued scaling of interconnects beyond 5 nm node. ©2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Tunable Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Cu-B/Diamond Composites Prepared by Gas Pressure Infiltration
    (Elsevier Ltd) Bai, G.; Zhang, Y.; Dai, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.; Chen, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.
    Cu-B matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (Cu-B/diamond) were prepared by gas pressure infiltration (GPI). The effect of boron addition in the range of 0–1.0 wt% on the thermal expansion behavior of the Cu-B/diamond composites was evaluated. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the Cu-B/diamond composites initially decreases and then increases with increasing boron content. The minimum CTE value of 4.88 × 10 -6 /K is obtained at 0.5 wt% B addition, which satisfies the requirement of CTE of semiconductors (range of 4–8 × 10⁻⁶ /K) for electronic packaging applications. The variation of CTE of the Cu-B/diamond composites is attributed to the formation of interfacial carbides and their morphological evolution. The interface structure evolves from discrete triangular carbides into continuous carbide layer with increasing boron content. The increase in the quantity of discrete carbides enhances the interface, but the formation of continuous carbides impairs the interfacial bonding of the Cu-B/diamond composites. The results suggest that alloying B to Cu matrix is an effective route to tune the coefficient of thermal expansion of Cu/diamond composites. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.
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    Tailoring Interface Structure and Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Cu/Diamond Composites by Alloying Boron to the Cu Matrix
    (Elsevier Inc.) Bai, G.; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Luhua; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.
    Diamond particles reinforced Cu matrix (Cu/diamond) composites were prepared by alloying 0.1–1.0 wt% B to the Cu matrix in order to tailor the interface structure. The interface structure evolves from discrete triangular carbides into continuous jig-saw carbides depending on the availability of boron source in the Cu-B matrix. We report the highest thermal conductivity of 868 W/mK so far in boron-modified Cu/diamond composites, which originates from the discontinuous carbide interface in the Cu-B/diamond composites. The parallel connection of interfacial thermal resistances of the discontinuous carbide interface reduces the total interfacial thermal resistance and therefore promotes phonon transfer across the Cu/diamond interface. We clarify the formation mechanism of discontinuous carbide interface in the Cu-B/diamond composites and demonstrate the decisive role of discrete triangular carbides in enhancing thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites. The results help to establish the method of metal matrix alloying to prepare Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.
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    Realization of the First GaN Based Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.) Chaney, A.; Turski, H.; Nomoto, K.; Wang, Qingxiao; Hu, Z.; Kim, Moon J.; Xing, H. G.; Jena, D.; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.
    Tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) offer the means to surpass the subthreshold swing (SS) limit of 60 mV/dec that limits MOSFETs. While MOSFETs rely on modulating a potential barrier, which is subject to a Boltzmann tail in the density of states (DOS), interband tunneling in TFETs enables a sharp turn off of the DOS because the transport is no longer governed by an exponential tail of carriers. These devices have been investigated in Si III-V material systems¹, achieving SS's as low as 20 mV/dec ². GaN is advantageous to these other material systems because its large bandgap is ideal for suppressing leakage current. Unfortunately impurity doping in GaN alone is not enough to achieve the internal fields required to promote interband tunneling[Fig l(a)]. However, by taking advantage of the difference in polarization fields between InGaN and GaN, a device structure favoring interband tunneling can be made [Fig l(b)]. Li et. al.³ have theoretically predicted that a GaN heterojunction TFET could obtain an SS of 15 mV/dec and a peak current of 1× 10⁻⁴ A/µm. For the work being presented, GaN TFETs were fabricated using a surrounding gate (SG) architecture utilizing both nanowires and fins formed from a top-down approach. © 2018 IEEE.
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    Enhanced Thermal Conductivity in Cu/Diamond Composites by Tailoring the Thickness of Interfacial TiC Layer
    (Elsevier Ltd) Wang, Luhua; Li, J.; Catalano, Massimo; Bai, G.; Li, N.; Dai, J.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.; Wang, Luhua; Catalano, Massimo; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.
    Diamond particles reinforced Cu matrix (Cu/diamond) composites were fabricated by gas pressure infiltration using Ti-coated diamond particles with Ti coating from 65 nm to 850 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterizes that the Ti coating transforms from elemental Ti to TiC after infiltration, and the crystallographic orientation relationship between diamond and TiC is [1 1 0]_{diamond}//[1 1 0]_{TiC} and (1 1 1)_{diamond}//(1 1 1)_{TiC}. The thermal conductivity of the Cu/Ti-diamond composites firstly increases and then decreases with increasing Ti coating thickness, giving a maximal value of 811 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹ at 220 nm Ti-coating layer. The results clearly manifest the effect of interfacial layer thickness on the thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites.
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    Structural Effect of Two-Dimensional BNNS on Grain Growth Suppressing Behaviors in Al-Matrix Nanocomposites
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-10-22) Nam, Seungjin; Chang, Kunok; Lee, Woonki; Kim, Moon J.; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Choi, Hyunjoo; Kim, Moon J.
    While nanocrystalline (NC) metals exhibit superior strength to conventional microcrystalline metals, their thermal instability has hampered their application at high temperatures. Herein, two-dimensional (2D) boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are proposed as reinforcement to enhance the strength as well as the thermal stability of NC Al. The strength of pure Al was increased from 80 to 468 MPa by refining its grains from ~ 600 to ~ 40 nm, and it was further enhanced to 685 MPa by incorporating 2 vol% of BNNS. Moreover, the small amount of BNNS was found to effectively suppress grain growth of NC Al at 580 ⁰C (similar to 0.9 T_m, where T_m is the melting point of Al), which prevented a strength drop at high temperature. Finally, the Zener pinning model in conjunction with phase-field simulations was utilized to qualitatively analyze the effect of the BNNS on the grain boundary pinning as a function of volume, shape, and orientation of the reinforcement. The model demonstrated that the pinning force of 2D reinforcements is much higher than that of spherical particles. Hence, 2D BNNS offer the possibility of developing Al-matrix nanocomposites for high-temperature structural applications.
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    Cubic Crystalline Erbium Oxide Growth on GaN(0001) by Atomic Layer Deposition
    (Amer Inst Physics, 2018-10-22) Chen, Pei-Yu; Posadas, Agham B.; Kwon, Sunah; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.; Kwon, Sunah; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.
    Growth of crystalline Er₂O₃, a rare earth sesquioxide, on GaN(0001) is described. Ex situ HCl and NH₄OH solutions and an in situ N₂ plasma are used to remove impurities on the GaN surface and result in a Ga/N stoichiometry of 1.02. Using atomic layer deposition with erbium tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) [Er((^{i}PrCp)₃] and water, crystalline cubic Er₂O₃ (C-Er₂O₃) is grown on GaN at 250 ⁰C. The orientation relationships between the C-Er₂O₃ film and the GaN substrate are C-Er₂O₃(222)
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    Nucleation and Growth of WSe₂: Enabling Large Grain Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
    (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2017-09-22) Yue, Ruoyu; Nie, Yifan; Walsh, Lee A.; Addou, Rafik; Liang, Chaoping; Lu, Ning; Barton, Adam T.; Zhu, Hui; Che, Zifan; Barrera, Diego; Cheng, Lanxia; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Chabal, Yves J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hinkle, Christopher L.; 0000-0002-2910-2938 (Liang, C); Yue, Ruoyu; Nie, Yifan; Walsh, Lee A.; Addou, Rafik; Liang, Chaoping; Lu, Ning; Barton, Adam T.; Zhu, Hui; Che, Zifan; Barrera, Diego; Cheng, Lanxia; Chabal, Yves J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hinkle, Christopher L.
    The limited grain size (< 200 nm) for transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) reported in the literature thus far is unsuitable for high-performance device applications. In this work, the fundamental nucleation and growth behavior of WSe₂ is investigated through a detailed experimental design combined with on-lattice, diffusion-based first principles kinetic modeling to enable large area TMD growth. A three-stage adsorption-diffusion-attachment mechanism is identified and the adatom stage is revealed to play a significant role in the nucleation behavior. To limit the nucleation density and promote 2D layered growth, it is necessary to have a low metal flux in conjunction with an elevated substrate temperature. At the same time, providing a Se-rich environment further limits the formation of W-rich nuclei which suppresses vertical growth and promotes 2D growth. The fundamental understanding gained through this investigation has enabled an increase of over one order of magnitude in grain size for WSe₂ thus far, and provides valuable insight into improving the growth of other TMD compounds by MBE and other growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
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    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Quality, High Indium Composition N-Polar InGaN Layers for Tunnel Devices
    (American Institute of Physics Inc, 2018-08-24) Lund, C.; Romanczyk, B.; Catalano, Massimo; Wang, Qingxiao; Li, W.; DiGiovanni, D.; Kim, Moon J.; Fay, P.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Mishra, U. K.; Keller, S.; Catalano, Massimo; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.
    In this study, the growth of high quality N-polar InGaN films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is presented with a focus on growth process optimization for high indium compositions and the structural and tunneling properties of such films. Uniform InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well stacks with indium compositions up to 0.46 were grown with local compositional analysis performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within a scanning transmission electron microscope. Bright room-temperature photoluminescence up to 600 nm was observed for films with indium compositions up to 0.35. To study the tunneling behavior of the InGaN layers, N-polar GaN/In0.35Ga0.65N/GaN tunnel diodes were fabricated which reached a maximum current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 at 5 V reverse bias. Temperature-dependent measurements are presented and confirm tunneling behavior under reverse bias. © 2017 Author(s).
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    Al₂O₃ on WSe₂ by Ozone Based Atomic Layer Deposition: Nucleation and Interface Study
    Azcatl, Angelica; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Wallace, Robert M.; 0000-0001-5566-4806 (Wallace, RM); Azcatl, Angelica; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Wallace, Robert M.
    In this work, the atomic layer deposition process using ozone and trimethylaluminum (TMA) for the deposition of Al₂O₃ films on WSe₂ was investigated. It was found that the ozone-based atomic layer deposition enhanced the nucleation of Al₂O₃ in comparison to the water/TMA process. In addition, the chemistry at the Al₂O₃ / WSe₂ interface and the surface morphology of the Al₂O₃ films exhibited a dependence on the deposition temperature. A non-covalent functionalizing effect of ozone on WSe₂ at low deposition temperatures 30 ⁰C was identified which prevented the formation of pinholes in the Al₂O₃ films. These findings aim to provide an approach to obtain high-quality gate dielectrics on WSe₂ for two-dimensional transistor applications.
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    Atomic Scale Study of Polar Lomer-Cottrell and Hirth Lock Dislocation Cores in CdTe
    (International Union of Crystallography) Paulauskas, T.; Buurma, C.; Colegrove, E.; Stafford, B.; Guo, Z.; Chan, M. K. Y.; Sun, Kuei; Kim, Moon J.; Sivananthan, Sivalingam; Klie, R. F.
    Dislocation cores have long dominated the electronic and optical behaviors of semiconductor devices and detailed atomic characterization is required to further explore their effects. Miniaturization of semiconductor devices to nanometre scale also puts emphasis on a material's mechanical properties to withstand failure due to processing or operational stresses. Sessile junctions of dislocations provide barriers to propagation of mobile dislocations and may lead to work-hardening. The sessile Lomer-Cottrell and Hirth lock dislocations, two stable lowest elastic energy stair-rods, are studied in this paper. More specifically, using atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field imaging and atomic-column-resolved X-ray spectrum imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, dislocation core structures are examined in zinc-blende CdTe. A procedure is outlined for atomic scale analysis of dislocation junctions which allows determination of their identity with specially tailored Burgers circuits and also formation mechanisms of the polar core structures based on Thompson's tetrahedron adapted to reactions of polar dislocations as they appear in CdTe and other zinc-blende solids. Strain fields associated with the dislocations calculated via geometric phase analysis are found to be diffuse and free of 'hot spots' that reflect compact structures and low elastic energy of the pure-edge stair-rods.
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    Low Temperature Synthesis of Graphite on Ni Films Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Enhanced CVD
    (Royal Soc Chemistry) Cheng, Lanxia; Yun, Kayoung; Lucero, Antonio; Huang, Jie; Meng, Xin; Lian, Guoda; Nam, Ho-Seok; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Moon J.; Venugopal, Archana; Colombo, Luigi; Kim, Jiyoung; A-5283-2008 (Wallace, RM); A-2297-2010 (Kim, MJ); 70133685 (Kim, J)
    Controlled synthesis of graphite at low temperatures is a desirable process for a number of applications. Here, we present a study on the growth of thin graphite films on polycrystalline Ni films at low temperatures, about 380 ⁰C, using inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman analysis shows that the grown graphite films are of good quality as determined by a low I-D/I-G ratio, ~0.43, for thicknesses ranging from a few layers of graphene to several nanometer thick graphitic films. The growth of graphite films was also studied as a function of time, precursor gas pressure, hydrogen concentration, substrate temperature and plasma power. We found that graphitic films can be synthesized on polycrystalline thin Ni films on SiO₂/Si substrates after only 10 seconds at a substrate temperature as low as 200 ⁰C. The amount of hydrogen radicals, adjusted by changing the hydrogen to methane gas ratio and pressure, was found to dramatically affect the quality of graphite films due to their dual role as a catalyst and an etchant. We also find that a plasma power of about 50 W is preferred in order to minimize plasma induced graphite degradation.
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    Atomically Thin Resonant Tunnel Diodes Built from Synthetic van der Waals Heterostructures
    (Nature Pub. Group) Lin, Yu-Chuan; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Zhu, Hui; Li, Ming-Yang; Peng, Xin; Kim, Moon J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Robinson, Joshua A.; A-5283-2008 (Wallace, RM); A-2297-2010 (Kim, MJ)
    Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe₂) and tungsten diselenide (WSe₂). The realization of MoS₂-WSe₂-graphene and WSe₂-MoS₂-graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.;
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    Luminescent LaF₃:Ce-Doped Organically Modified Nanoporous Silica Xerogels
    Yao, Mingzhen; Hall, Ryan; Chen, Wei; Mohite, Dhairyashil P.; Leventis, Nicholas; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J.; Luo, Huiyang; Lu, Hongbing
    Organically modified silica compounds (ORMOSILs) were synthesized by a sol-gel method from amine-functionalized 3-aminopropyl triethoxylsilane and tetramethylorthosilicate and were doped in situ with LaF3:Ce nanoparticles, which in turn were prepared either in water or in ethanol. Doped ORMOSILs display strong photoluminescence either by UV or X-ray excitation and maintain good transparency up to a loading level of 15.66% w/w. The TEM observations demonstrate that ORMOSILs remain nanoporous with pore diameters in the 5-10 nm range. LaF3:Ce nanoparticles doped into the ORMOSILs are rod-like, 5 nm in diameter and 10-15 nm in length. Compression testing indicates that the nanocomposites have very good strength, without significant lateral dilatation and buckling under quasi-static compression. LaF3:Ce nanoparticle-doped ORMOSILs have potential for applications in radiation detection and solid state lighting.
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    Creating a Single Twin Boundary between Two CdTe (111) Wafers with Controlled Rotation Angle by Wafer Bonding
    Sun, Ce; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo; Lee, Jihyung; Peng, Xin; Klie, R. F.; Kim, Moon J.
    The single twin boundary with crystallographic orientation relationship (1‾ 1‾ 1 ‾)//(111) [0 1‾1]// [011‾] was created by wafer bonding. Electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the well control of the rotation angle between the bonded pair. At the twin boundary, one unit of wurtzite structure was found between two zinc-blende matrices. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed Cd- and Te-terminated for the two bonded portions, respectively. The I-V curve across the twin boundary showed increasingly nonlinear behavior, indicating a potential barrier at the bonded twin boundary.
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    MoS₂ Functionalization for Ultra-Thin Atomic Layer Deposited Dielectrics
    Azcatl, Angelica; McDonnell, Stephen; KC, Santosh; Peng, Xin; Dong, Hong; Qin, Xiaoye; Addou, Rafik; Mordi, Greg I.; Lu, Ning; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M.; 70133685 (Kim, J)
    The effect of room temperature ultraviolet-ozone (UV-O₃) exposure of MoS₂ on the uniformity of subsequent atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃ is investigated. It is found that a UV-O₃ pre-treatment removes adsorbed carbon contamination from the MoS₂ surface and also functionalizes the MoS₂ surface through the formation of a weak sulfur-oxygen bond without any evidence of molybdenum-sulfur bond disruption. This is supported by first principles density functional theory calculations which show that oxygen bonded to a surface sulfur atom while the sulfur is simultaneously back-bonded to three molybdenum atoms is a thermodynamically favorable configuration. The adsorbed oxygen increases the reactivity of MoS₂ surface and provides nucleation sites for atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃. The enhanced nucleation is found to be dependent on the thin film deposition temperature.
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    Enhanced Shape Stability of Pd-Rh Core-Frame Nanocubes at Elevated Temperature: In Situ Heating Transmission Electron Microscopy
    Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo; Xie, S.; Xia, Y.; Kim, Moon J.
    Shape stability of Pd-Rh core-frame nanocubes was studied by in situ heating transmission electron microscopy. Pd-Rh nanocubes could maintain cubic shape at elevated temperature compared with pure Pd. The surface diffusion process of Rh onto {100} side surfaces is believed to postpone the degradation to higher temperature.
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    Facile Synthesis of Pd-Ir Bimetallic Octapods and Nanocages Through Galvanic Replacement and Co-Reduction, and their use for Hydrazine Decomposition
    Liu, M.; Zheng, Y.; Xie, S.; Li, N.; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinquo; Kim, Moon J.; Guo, L.; Xia, Y.
    This article describes a facile synthesis of Pd-Ir bimetallic nanostructures in the forms of core-shell octapods and alloyed nanocages. The success of this synthesis relies on the use of Pd nanocubes as the sacrificial templates and interplay of two different processes: the galvanic replacement between an Ir precursor and the Pd nanocubes and the co-reduction of Pd²⁺ and Ir³⁺ by ethylene glycol. The galvanic replacement played a dominant role in the initial stage, through which Pd atoms were dissolved from the side faces whereas Ir atoms were deposited at the corner sites to generate Pd-Ir core-shell octapods. As the concentration of Pd²⁺ in the reaction mixture was increased, co-reduction of Pd²⁺ and Ir³⁺ occurred in the late stage of synthesis. The resultant Pd and Ir atoms were deposited onto the octapods while the Pd atoms in the interiors continued to be etched away due to the galvanic replacement, finally leading to the formation of Pd-Ir alloyed nanocages. The octapods and nanocages were then evaluated as catalysts for the selective generation of hydrogen from the decomposition of hydrous hydrazine. The nanocages exhibited better selectivity for hydrogen generation than octapods (66% versus 29%), which can be attributed to the presence of an alloyed, porous structure on the surface.

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